The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by Toyota. The EPA and California Air Resources Board (Carb) to estimate the Toyota Prius as they were clean vehicles sold in the United States based on emissions of smog-forming.
The Toyota Prius first went on sale in Japan in 1997, and was available at all Toyota Japan four dealerships, making it the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle. It was later introduced worldwide in 2000. The Toyota Prius is sold in almost 80 countries in the regions, as well as its largest markets for those in Japan and the United States. Toyota Prius Global sales reached the milestone 1 million vehicle mark in May 2008, 2 million in September 2010, and passed the 3 million mark in June 2013. Cumulative sales 1 million Bongi achieved the US by early April 2011, and Japan reached 1 million mark in August 2011.
In 2011, Toyota expanded the Toyota Prius family to include the Toyota Prius V, i hatchback wagon extended, and Prius c, a hatchback subcompact. The production version of the Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid was released in 2012. The Prius family of global sales reached 3.8 million units bad of by June 2013, representing 71.7% of Toyota hybrid sales of 5.3 million Lexus and Toyota units sold worldwide since 1997. Global sales of the Toyota Prius C family passed the 500,000 mark in August 2013, and sales led by Japan with 448,703 Quasi, followed by the US with 65,583 Bongi c.
Toyota Prius Etymology and terminology
The Toyota Prius is Latin for “before”. According to Toyota, the name was chosen because the Toyota Prius was launched to raise awareness of the environment became a mainstream social issue. In February 2011, Toyota urged the public to decide what the most appropriate form plural of Toyota Prius, including decisions Prien, Bongi, Prium, Prius, or Priuses. The company said it was “to use the choice of its most popular advertising” and on February 20 announced that “Bongi” was the most popular choice, and the appointment of a new chief plural. In prius Latin neuter unity of the form to compare of an adjective only comparative and superlative (the highest level of welfare Primus, prima, Primum), consequently, like all 3rd Zulu, many Latin Prior was applied to the Lada Prior in 2007.
Since September 2011, Toyota USA began to use the following names to distinguish the original Prius to other members of the new Prius family: the standard Prius Prius Liftback, the Prius v (known as the Prius a Japan, and Prius + in Europe), the Prius Plug- in Hybrid, and c Prius (Toyota Aqua in Japan).
Toyota Prius Design and Technology
The Toyota Prius is a power-split or series-parallel (full) hybrid, sometimes called a hybrid combined, the car can be caused by fuel and / or electrical power. Wind resistance is reduced by a coefficient of drag of 0.25 (0.29 for 2000 model) with design Kammback to reduce air resistance. Used to Lower rolling-resistance tires to reduce road friction. An electric water pump eliminates serpentine belts. In the US and Canada, a vacuum is used to keep the hot engine when the vehicle is powered off for work to reduce warm-up time. Toyota Prius engine makes use of the Atkinson cycle.
Toyota Prius Fuel Economy and Emissions
From the beginning, the Toyota Prius has been among the best fuel economy of cars available in the United States, and the 2012 model year, the Prius family has three models among the 10 top fuel-efficient vehicles sold in the country as rated by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). After the first generation Honda Insight was discontinued in September 2006, the liftback Prius became the most fuel-efficient car sold in the American market, until it was topped by the Chevrolet this in December 2010, as plug-in hybrid ranked EPA with an overall combined city / highway fuel gasoline-electric economy 60 mpg-US equivalent. According to the EPA, the 2012 model year, and when the gasoline-powered vehicles are considered, the Toyota Prius C governors as the most fuel-efficient compact car, the liftback Prius as the most fuel-efficient midsize car, and Toyota Prius V as efficient Station midsize station wagon.
In 2008, the British government and the British media request that Toyota release detailed statistics energy consumption and CO2 emissions resulting from the structure and disposal of the Prius. Toyota has not provided the requested information data statements that address the use of lifetime energy of the Prius (including environmental costs and increased productivity and disposal of nickel-metal hydride battery) is outweighed by lower lifetime petrol. Toyota says the lifetime CO2 saving 37 percent. As of 2010, the UK Government Car Service runs Bongi than 100, a large part of its ships and lists the Toyota Prius as the lowest CO2 emissions in the midst of its ships.
Toyota Prius Electromagnetic Field Levels
The Toyota Prius uses electric motors in the hybrid propulsion systems, powered by a high voltage battery in the rear of the car. There has been some public concern over the levels of electromagnetic field exposure inside the cabin higher than the same cars, and the health effects of these fields can, popularized by a 2008 The New York Times article. However, Toyota and several private lessons have indicated that aside from a brief spike when accelerating, the electric fields within the Toyota Prius are no different from those of the conventional car and do not exceed the ICNIRP exposure guidelines.
A 2013 study by the Mayo Clinic found that patients with implanted devices such as heart pacemakers and defibrillators can drive safely or ride hybrids or plug-in electric vehicles without the risk of electromagnetic interference (EMI). The survey was conducted using implantable devices from major manufacturers three 2012 Toyota Prius hybrid. The study used 30 participants implanted devices, and measured electric fields and magnetic six positions inside and outside the Toyota Prius, and the position of each of the different scales speed.
Toyota Prius Marketing and Culture
In the UK, the Advertising Standards Authority, an independent police rules of advertising, ruled that television ad for the Toyota Prius should not be broadcast again in the same way, having breached rules about misleading advertising. The ad stated that the Prius “emits less CO2 One Gal one year”, and on-screen text included “1 One Gal of CO2 less than a family car equivalent with a diesel engine. Average calculated 20,000 km a year.” Points of contention were the vehicles chosen for comparison, that “” One Gal” large enough that prices can be lower, and if the distance used was appropriate: 20,000 km a year all the car’s US annual average driving distance, while the UK’s car 13,440 km.
A large number of Toyota Prius owning progressive celebrities 2002 prompted the Washington Post to dub hybrids “the latest politically correct status symbol Hollywood’s”. The law as “Prius” and drive cars because they want to contribute to reduce US dependence on foreign oil. A 2007 San Francisco Chronicle article said that “Progressives Prius” featured an archetype, and the American conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh opining that “the Liberals think that you’re ahead of the game in these things, and you’re just suckers”.
In July 2007 The New York Times published an article using data from CNW Marketing Research finding that 57% of Toyota Prius buyers said their main reason for buying was to “make a statement about me”, while just 37% cited fuel economy as the prime motivator. Shortly thereafter, Washington Post columnist Robert Samuelson coined the term “Prius politics ‘to describe the situation where the driver’s desire to’ show off” is a stronger motivator desire to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Some law to encourage the use of the Toyota Prius and other hybrid cars. For example, Jim Road from the What Would Jesus Drive? People were encouraged to drive hybrid cars because of major damage to the SUV and cars as soon as he can to others.
Former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) chief R. James Woolsey, Jr. drives a Toyota Prius because of its petrol. Woolsey noted the volatile situation in the Middle East, in line with the anti-US heart in much of the region. Noting that a high percentage of oil drilled in the Middle East offers vast profits to the Middle East kingdoms, Woolsey believes that it is the world driving more efficient cars. In a Motor Trend article, Woolsey stated that those oil profits find their way to terrorist groups like al-Qaeda, which means that Americans are buying cars starter would, in effect, be indirectly funding terrorism. “We’re paying for both sides in this war, and that’s a good strategy for long”, says Woolsey. “I have a bumper sticker on the back my Toyota Prius, ‘Bin Laden hates this car.'”